Extrapyramidal Diseases: Hyperkinetic Movement Disorders – Tics and Tourette Syndrome




© Springer-Verlag Italia 2015
Angelo Sghirlanzoni, Giuseppe Lauria and Luisa Chiapparini (eds.)Prognosis of Neurological Diseases10.1007/978-88-470-5755-5_31


31. Extrapyramidal Diseases: Hyperkinetic Movement Disorders – Tics and Tourette Syndrome



Marco Prastaro  and Floriano Girotti 


(1)
Fondazione Giancarlo Quarta Milano, Milan, Italy

 



 

Marco Prastaro (Corresponding author)



 

Floriano Girotti



Keywords
TicHyperkinetic disordersTourette syndromeNatural history



Key Facts





  • Termino logy and definitionsTics are semi-voluntary, sudden, rapid, brief, and non-rhythmic motor movements or phonic productions. Tourette syndrome (TS) is a neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by motor and phonic tics.


  • Clinical featuresTics may be simple, complex, transient or chronic. TS: motor and vocal tics; neuropsychiatric symptoms.


  • Diagnosis – Clinical.



    • GeneticsTS: significant multigene correlation.


    • Imaging – MRI (supporting role).


  • Top differential diagnosesTS: tics; Obsessive-Compulsive Disease; Psychosis.


  • Prognosis



    • Principles of treatmentTICS and TS: antipsychotic drugs.


    • Disability – Intraindividual and interindividual variability quoad valetudinem.


Abbreviations

ADHD, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder; OCD, obsessive–compulsive disease; TS, Tourette syndrome


31.1 Tic Disorders



31.1.1 Definition


Tics are semi-voluntary, sudden, rapid, brief, and non-rhythmic motor movements or phonic productions.


31.1.2 Clinical Features


Tics cause aimless and stereotyped motor actions (motor tics) and/or sounds (vocal tics) that are not suitable to the context. The patient declares he feels obliged to do it in order to release tension. It is possible to overpower such movements for a limited time by an endeavor of will, but the tics come back as soon as the subject’s attention is distracted.

Tics are classified as “simple” or “complex”. Simple tics implicate a restricted number of muscle groups. Complex tics, instead, involve several muscle groups.


31.1.3 Demographics


“Transient tic” is the most usual tic disorder and may affect up to 20 % of children during the early school years, while “chronic tic” interests up to 5 % of children [1]. Tics are defined “chronic” if present for 1 year or more.

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Nov 10, 2016 | Posted by in NEUROLOGY | Comments Off on Extrapyramidal Diseases: Hyperkinetic Movement Disorders – Tics and Tourette Syndrome
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