Biomechanical Aspects

Nov 14, 2017 by in NEUROSURGERY Comments Off on Biomechanical Aspects

and Uwe Spetzger1 (1) Department of Neurosurgery, Klinikum Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe, Baden-Württemberg, Germany   The cervical spine is the most flexible part of the spinal column with six degrees of freedom in…

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3D Printing and Patient-Matched Implants

Nov 14, 2017 by in NEUROSURGERY Comments Off on 3D Printing and Patient-Matched Implants

Fig. 9.1 Stereolithography model of a patient with a left mandibular tumor which has eaten away the bone.Surgery will involve removing almost half of the mandible and replacing with a…

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Musculoskeletal 3D Printing

Nov 14, 2017 by in NEUROSURGERY Comments Off on Musculoskeletal 3D Printing

Fig. 8.1 3D model of the spine of a patient with ankylosing spondylitis showing ossification of the anterior and posterior longitudinal ligaments and ligamentum flavum. This can be used for…

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Post-processing of DICOM Images

Nov 14, 2017 by in NEUROSURGERY Comments Off on Post-processing of DICOM Images

Fig. 3.1 Flowchart shows sample workflow for a radiology-centered 3D three-dimensional printing process. Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) images are initially processed with compatible segmentation software, and the…

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3D Printing Technologies

Nov 14, 2017 by in NEUROSURGERY Comments Off on 3D Printing Technologies

Fig. 2.1 DICOM images cannot be directly communicated to 3D printers for printing. 3D printers currently accept digital 3D models, typically defined by surfaces stored in the STL file format….

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Craniofacial Applications of 3D Printing

Nov 14, 2017 by in NEUROSURGERY Comments Off on Craniofacial Applications of 3D Printing

Fig. 5.1 Identification of the auditory canal from a cone beam CT 5.1 Craniofacial Imaging Computed tomography is the preferred method of imaging for head and neck reconstructions. The Hounsfield…

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Quality and Safety of 3D-Printed Medical Models

Nov 14, 2017 by in NEUROSURGERY Comments Off on Quality and Safety of 3D-Printed Medical Models

Tested geometry Printing technology Absolute difference; mean ± SD (range) [mm, unless otherwise noted] Relative difference; mean ± SD (range) [%] Skull and mandible (El-Katatny et al. 2010) Professional FDM…

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Cardiovascular 3D Printing

Nov 14, 2017 by in NEUROSURGERY Comments Off on Cardiovascular 3D Printing

Fig. 7.1 Flexible 3D printed models of double outlet right ventricle for hands-on training of suturing the ventricular septal defect patch (photo courtesy of Prof. Shi-Joon Yoo from The Hospital…

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3D Printing in Neurosurgery

Nov 14, 2017 by in NEUROSURGERY Comments Off on 3D Printing in Neurosurgery

Fig. 6.1 Titanium plate compressed to 3D-printed model of defect Patient’s actual bone from the initial decompression cannot be used as a template at the time of implantation simply because…

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Virtual Reality

Nov 14, 2017 by in NEUROSURGERY Comments Off on Virtual Reality

Fig. 12.1 Illustration of the reality-virtuality continuum 12.2 History of Virtual Reality 12.2.1 Early Milestones While the concept of VR dates back to early science fiction writers, its history is…

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