Electronics

Jul 15, 2019 by in NEUROLOGY Comments Off on Electronics

The history of SCS devices From fish to electronics The history of spinal cord stimulation is part of a larger human story of pain reduction spanning perhaps thousands of years….

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Intraoperative Evaluation

Jul 15, 2019 by in NEUROLOGY Comments Off on Intraoperative Evaluation

Introduction As neuromodulation therapies become a treatment standard for a variety of disorders including medically refractory Parkinson’s disease (PD), essential tremor, dystonia, pain syndromes, epilepsy, psychiatric disorders, and other future…

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Safety Concerns and Limitations

Jul 15, 2019 by in NEUROLOGY Comments Off on Safety Concerns and Limitations

Neuromodulation is an essential part of functional neurosurgery and an important therapeutic modality for many patients suffering from medically refractory disorders. Deep brain stimulation (DBS), motor cortex stimulation (MCS), vagal…

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Programming – DBS Programming

Jul 15, 2019 by in NEUROLOGY Comments Off on Programming – DBS Programming

Introduction One of the greatest advantages of neuromodulation therapies, and in contrast to ablative procedures of the past is that the anatomical and physiological substrate of the therapy may continue…

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Cerebral – Surface

Jul 15, 2019 by in NEUROLOGY Comments Off on Cerebral – Surface

The goal of cortical stimulation (CS) is to change the excitability or activity of cortical and related subcortical networks involved in pathophysiological processes. Any neurological or psychiatric disorder can be…

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Power

Jul 15, 2019 by in NEUROLOGY Comments Off on Power

Overview Over the past several decades the field of neuromodulation has seen a rapid growth. This growth has been possible in part by the many advances made in technology; in…

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Device Materials, Handling, and Upgradability

Jul 15, 2019 by in NEUROLOGY Comments Off on Device Materials, Handling, and Upgradability

Introduction A neuromodulation system may consist of two or more components, including the neurostimulator, a lead which contains the electrodes for stimulation and, in some cases, an extension that bridges…

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Spinal – Extradural

Jul 15, 2019 by in NEUROLOGY Comments Off on Spinal – Extradural

Introduction History Spinal injections were first used in the mid-19th century to produce anesthesia for surgical procedures. Over the next century, new needles were developed and our anatomical understanding of…

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Expectations and Outcomes

Jul 15, 2019 by in NEUROLOGY Comments Off on Expectations and Outcomes

Expectations and outcomes Since the resurgence of neurostimulation technologies in the 1990s, promising advances have been made in this field by altering nervous system function for relief of pain and…

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