Status Epilepticus – Lessons and Challenges from Animal Models

Aug 25, 2017 by in NEUROLOGY Comments Off on Status Epilepticus – Lessons and Challenges from Animal Models

Fig. 1.1 (I) Initial observation that repeated electroconvulsive shocks induce self-sustaining SE in rats. Representative electrographic recordings from skull screw electrodes in paralyzed and O2-ventilated rats maintained in good acid-base…

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Seizures and Status Epilepticus in Pediatric Critical Care

Aug 25, 2017 by in NEUROLOGY Comments Off on Seizures and Status Epilepticus in Pediatric Critical Care

Fig. 22.1 Example of management pathway for pediatric status epilepticus Status Epilepticus Management: Diagnostic Considerations Medical stabilization is critical as part of the management of SE. The Neurocritical Care Society’s…

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Drug-Induced Seizures in Critically Ill Patients

Aug 25, 2017 by in NEUROLOGY Comments Off on Drug-Induced Seizures in Critically Ill Patients

Agent Proposed mechanism High risk agents Antipsychoticsa D1 agonists and D2 antagonists are proconvulsant. Antagonism of α1-receptors, agonism of α2-receptors, and inhibition of histamine-1 receptors may promote seizure activity Flumazenila…

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Alcohol-Related Seizures in the Intensive Care Unit

Aug 25, 2017 by in NEUROLOGY Comments Off on Alcohol-Related Seizures in the Intensive Care Unit

Degree Time from last ethanol consumption (hours) Presenting clinical signs and symptoms A. Mild sympathomimetic symptoms 6–12 Tremors, diaphoresis, hyperthermia, nausea/vomiting, hypertension, tachycardia, tachypnea, mydriasis B. Alcoholic hallucinosis (25%) 12–24…

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Infection or Inflammation and Critical Care Seizures

Aug 25, 2017 by in NEUROLOGY Comments Off on Infection or Inflammation and Critical Care Seizures

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017Panayiotis N. Varelas and Jan Claassen (eds.)Seizures in Critical CareCurrent Clinical Neurology10.1007/978-3-319-49557-6_17 17. Infection or Inflammation and Critical Care Seizures Andrew C. Schomer1  , Wendy Ziai2  , Mohammed Rehman3   and Barnett R. Nathan4   (1) Division of Neurocritical Care,…

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Management of Critical Care Seizures

Aug 25, 2017 by in NEUROLOGY Comments Off on Management of Critical Care Seizures

History of epilepsy  Breakthrough seizures  Low AED level Acute or chronic cerebrovascular disease  Ischemic stroke  ICH, SAH, SDH, EDH  Venous sinus thrombosis Malignancy  Solid neoplasm (primary or metastatic)  Leptomeningeal carcinomatosis…

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Hemorrhagic Stroke and Critical Care Seizures

Aug 25, 2017 by in NEUROLOGY Comments Off on Hemorrhagic Stroke and Critical Care Seizures

Hemorrhagic stroke subtype Estimated risk of seizure (%) Cerebral venous thrombosis 47–50 Cavernous malformation 23–79 Arteriovenous malformation 16–53 Subarachnoid hemorrhage 1.1–25 Hemorrhagic conversion of ischemic stroke 12 Intracerebral hemorrhage 8…

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Multimodality Monitoring Correlates of Seizures

Aug 25, 2017 by in NEUROLOGY Comments Off on Multimodality Monitoring Correlates of Seizures

Fig. 6.1 Invasive multimodality monitoring “bundle” in a patient in the neurointensive care unit. (a) External view of the patient’s head with microdialysis and rCBF probes in the foreground and…

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Management of Status Epilepticus in the Intensive Care Unit

Aug 25, 2017 by in NEUROLOGY Comments Off on Management of Status Epilepticus in the Intensive Care Unit

CNS Tissue hypoxia (decreased O2 delivery and increased demand) Cerebral edema (angiogenic and cytotoxic) Increased CBF-CMRO2 Increased intracranial pressure CSF pleocytosis Hemorrhage Cerebral venous thrombosis Cardiovascular Hypertension followed by hypotension…

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